HomeJambo InfoKey Recommendations On CBC Presidential Working Party On Education Reform In Kenya

Key Recommendations On CBC Presidential Working Party On Education Reform In Kenya

Recommendations on the Appropriate Structure to Implement Competency Based Curriculum (CBC)

The CBC aims at the nurturing of individual talents and skills, promotion of ethical principles and national values; as well as emphasizing the role of technology in learning. The current structure for CBC is 2-6-3-3-3.

The following recommendations are hereby made in reference to the structure for implementing CBC:

  1. The system of education for implementing CBC be re-structured to 2-6-2-4-3 comprising of the following levels and age-groups:
  2. Pre-primary / ECDE – 2 years

Age group – 5 years old at Pre-primary 1; 6 years old at Pre-primary 2 ii. Primary school –  6 years

Age group –  7 years old to 12 years old at Grade 1 to 6

iii. Junior Secondary School (JSS) – 2 years

Age group – 13 years old to 14 years old at Grade 7 to 8 iv.       Senior Secondary School (SSS)- 4 years

Age group – 15 years old to 18 years old at Grade 9 to 12

  1. Tertiary / University – 3 years (Minimum of 3 years; depending on program)
 The Junior Secondary School (JSS) Level of education be domiciled in the existing Primary Schools for the following reasons:

  • The learners transiting to Junior Secondary level are too young to transit to the current context of Secondary Schools in Kenya
  • The older students currently in secondary schools, being of a wider age gap with the transiting Grade 6 learners may bully the JSS learners in one way or another
  • Domiciling of JSS in Primary Schools will ensure utilization of the existing structures in primary school
  • The primary school teachers are more aware of, and competent in handling, the needs of these young learners better than their counterparts in the secondary schools who are conditioned to attend to more self-reliant learners

3. Adequate resources and facilities are paramount for the success of CBC. The Ministry of Education should construct sufficient class rooms and provide the required resources for implementation of CBC in both primary and secondary schools

4. Summative evaluation by the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) at the end of the base phase of CBC (Primary school level) be retained to determine placement into the various pathways at the next level

5. That the Ministry of Education to initiate a mechanism for systematic pre-service and in- service training for all teachers handing CBC classes. Therefore, CBC content should be initiated in all teacher training institutions. The in-service training programs should be domiciled in all regions to ensure that all schools have CBC trained teachers

6. More teachers to be trained and employed to achieve the 14 international best practices and the UNESCO recommendation of teacher: student ratio of 1:40 to facilitate learning using CBC


7.  The recruitment, employment, staffing, placement and remuneration of Pre-Primary / ECDE teachers should be done by the Teachers Service Commission (TSC), just like other teachers in primary and secondary schools. This will highly motivate the teachers at this level since their remuneration will be the same depending on their qualifications. TSC will also be able to keep watch, assess and evaluate the service delivery of these teachers

8. Internet connectivity to be provided to all institutions in Kenya in order to enhance digital learning, downloading and uploading of learning materials and learning process facilitation. This therefore means that fully equipped computer laboratories should be established in all basic learning institutions; including those in Arid & Semi-Arid (ASAL) areas

9. The Ministry of Education to commission qualified personnel to conduct an end-term evaluation of the 8-4-4 system of education; and present their findings before the 8-4-4 system ends and there is full implementation of CBC. This will prevent the CBC going through similar challenges experienced with 8-4-4 system of education

 Recommendations on Governance of the Basic Education Subsector

Effective governance is essential to promote a more cohesive and collaborative culture in all institutions of learning; and can greatly enhance the realization of the goals of education.  Given the importance of Education as a tool for socio-economic development, the Education sector requires sound governance at all levels; and all individuals and governing bodies must be aware of, and practice, the principles of good governance.

The following recommendations are hereby made in reference to governance of the Basic Education Subsector

1.  The appointment of the members of Boards of Management (BOM) for Basic Education institutions should be based on relevant qualifications by these members to serve the BOM

2. Members of the BOM should undergo mandatory capacity building / training; especially in leadership and governance

3. Members of the BOM should only serve for 2 terms and give way to the appointment of new members to serve

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